When injected into animals, leukotoxin (Lx) causes acute lung injury which is associated with neutrophils infiltrating the lung tissues. However, the effect of Lx on neutrophils is still unknown, and recently it has been reported that Lx diol, a hydrolyzed metabolite, should be more potent than Lx in vitro. In this study, the authors examined the effect of Lx and its diol on human neutrophils by assessing their chemotactic response, expression of adhesion molecules, and production of peroxides. Both Lx and its diol induced chemotaxis in human neutrophils via an involvement of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins, but they did not influence the expression of adhesion molecules or the production of peroxides. Furthermore, Lx synergistically affected chemotaxis with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), but not with endothelin-1. Neutrophil chemotaxis induced by both Lx and its diol was inhibited by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors, but not by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors or by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, whereas fMLP-induced chemotaxis was inhibited by PTK inhibitors, but not by PI3-K inhibitors or by PKC inhibitors. These results suggest that neutrophil chemotaxis induced by both Lx and its diol involves pathways different from those induced by fMLP. In conclusion, both leukotoxin and its diol metabolite induce chemotaxis in human neutrophils in a unique way and may act as important bioactive lipids when considering the pathological mechanism of acute lung injury.
pdf available online at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10678624
Tumor cell lines with a defective retinoblastoma gene are unableto transcribe the HLA class II genes in response to IFN- treatment,and reconstitution of functional Rb rescues IFN--induced classII gene expression. However, the molecular mechanism of Rb rescueof the class II genes is unknown. We have examined the effectof Rb expression on the activation of the promoter for HLA-DRA,the prototype class II gene. Oct-1, a POU domain transcriptionfactor, was identified as a repressor of HLA-DRA promoter activityin the Rb-defective cells. Rb expression led to phosphorylationof Oct-1, thus relieving its repressive effect. Oct-1 has alsobeen shown to repress interleukin 8 promoter activity. Consistentwith reduced levels of Oct-1 DNA binding activity in the Rb-transformedcell lines, interleukin 8 expression is higher in these celllines.
The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts’ behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts’ immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune measures did not indicate that any treatments resulted in physiological effects indicative of stress.
link to pdf at: http://www.journalofanimalscience.org/content/79/6/1466.long
Hemolysis or extensive cell damage can lead to high concentrations of free heme, causing oxidative stress and inflammation. Considering that heme induces neutrophil chemotaxis, we hypothesize that heme activates a G protein-coupled receptor. Here we show that similar to heme, several heme analogs were able to induce neutrophil migration in vitro and in vivo. Mesoporphyrins, molecules lacking the vinyl groups in their rings, were not chemotactic for neutrophils and selectively inhibited heme-induced migration. Moreover, migration of neutrophils induced by heme was abolished by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gα inhibitory protein, and with inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase Cβ, mitogen-activated protein kinases, or Rho kinase. The induction of reactive oxygen species by heme was dependent of Gα inhibitory protein and phosphoinositide 3-kinase and partially dependent of phospholipase Cβ, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Rho kinase. Together, our results indicate that heme activates neutrophils through signaling pathways that are characteristic of chemoattractant molecules and suggest that mesoporphyrins might prove valuable in the treatment of the inflammatory consequences of hemorrhagic and hemolytic disorders.
Chicken soup has long been regarded as a remedy for symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. As it is likely that the clinical similarity of the diverse infectious processes that can result in “colds” is due to a shared inflammatory response, an effect of chicken soup in mitigating inflammation could account for its attested benefits. To evaluate this, a traditional chicken soup was tested for its ability to inhibit neutrophil migration using the standard Boyden blindwell chemotaxis chamber assay with zymosan-activated serum and fMet-Leu-Phe as chemoattractants. Chicken soup significantly inhibited neutrophil migration and did so in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity was present in a nonparticulate component of the chicken soup. All of the vegetables present in the soup and the chicken individually had inhibitory activity, although only the chicken lacked cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, the complete soup also lacked cytotoxic activity. Commercial soups varied greatly in their inhibitory activity. The present study, therefore, suggests that chicken soup may contain a number of substances with beneficial medicinal activity. A mild anti-inflammatory effect could be one mechanism by which the soup could result in the mitigation of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections.
We evaluated the roles of the C-X-C chemokines cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) as well as the complement activation product C5a in development of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. During reperfusion, CD11b and CD18, but not CD11a, were upregulated on neutrophils [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood] and lung macrophages. BAL levels of CINC and MIP-2 were increased during the ischemic and reperfusion periods. Treatment with either anti-CINC or anti-MIP-2 IgG significantly reduced lung vascular permeability and decreased lung myeloperoxidase content by 93 and 68%, respectively (P < 0.05). During the same period, there were significant increases in serum C5a-related neutrophil chemotactic activity. Treatment with anti-C5a decreased lung vascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase, and BAL CINC by 51, 58, and 23%, respectively (P < 0.05). The data suggest that the C-X-C chemokines CINC and MIP-2 as well as the complement activation product C5a are required for lung neutrophil recruitment and full induction of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
We evaluated the levels of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE] and the expression of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) mRNA in induced sputum obtained from 10 control and 15 chronic bronchitis subjects. 15(S)-HETE was evaluated by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation followed by specific RIA. 15-LO mRNA expression was determined by primed in situ labeling. The levels of both soluble and cell-associated 15(S)-HETE resulted significantly higher in chronic bronchitis than in control subjects. The percentage of cells expressing 15-LO mRNA was significantly higher in chronic bronchitis than in control subjects (P < 0.01). Double staining for specific cell type markers and 15-LO mRNA showed macrophages and neutrophils positive for 15-LO, whereas similar staining of peripheral blood neutrophils did not show evidence for 15-LO expression, suggesting that expression of 15-LO in neutrophils takes place on migration into the airways. Because 15(S)-HETE inversely correlated with the percentage of neutrophils in sputum of chronic bronchitis subjects, we studied the effect of 15(S)-HETE on leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production in vitro and evaluated the concentration of LTB4 in induced sputum and the contribution of LTB4 to the chemotactic activity of induced sputum samples ex vivo. The results obtained indicate that macrophages and neutrophils present within the airways of chronic bronchitis subjects express 15-LO mRNA; increased basal levels of 15(S)-HETE may contribute to modulate, through the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites production, neutrophil infiltration and airway inflammation associated with chronic bronchitis.
We have recently reported that nitrite reductase, a bifunctional enzyme located in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) generation in a variety of respiratory cells, including bronchial epithelial cells (K. Oishi et al. Infect. Immun. 65:2648–2655, 1997). In this report, we examined the mode of nitrite reductase (PNR) release from a serum-sensitive strain of live P. aeruginosa cells during in vitro treatment with four different antimicrobial agents or human complement. Bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa by antimicrobial agents induced PNR release and mediated IL-8 production in human bronchial epithelial (BET-1A) cells. Among these agents, imipenem demonstrated rapid killing of P. aeruginosa as well as rapid release of PNR and resulted in the highest IL-8 production. Complement-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa was also associated with PNR release and enhanced IL-8 production. The immunoprecipitates of the aliquots of bacterial culture containing imipenem or complement with anti-PNR immunoglobulin G (IgG) induced a twofold-higher IL-8 production than did the immunoprecipitates of the aliquots of bacterial culture with a control IgG. These pieces of evidence confirmed that PNR released in the aliquots of bacterial culture was responsible for IL-8 production in the BET-1A cells. Furthermore, the culture supernatants of the BET-1A cells stimulated with aliquots of bacterial culture containing antimicrobial agents or complement similarly mediated neutrophil migration in vitro. These data support the possibility that a potent inducer of IL-8, PNR, could be released from P. aeruginosa after exposure to antimicrobial agents or complement and contributes to neutrophil migration in the airways during bronchopulmonary infections with P. aeruginosa.
Leukocyte recruitment in inflammation is critical for host defense, but excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells can lead to tissue damage. Neutrophil-derived serine proteases (cathepsin G [CG], neutrophil elastase [NE], and proteinase 3 [PR3]) are expressed specifically in mature neutrophils and are thought to play an important role in inflammation. To investigate the role of these proteases in inflammation, we generated a mouse deficient in dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) and established that DPPI is required for the full activation of CG, NE, and PR3. Although DPPI–/– mice have normal in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis and in vivo neutrophil accumulation during sterile peritonitis, they are protected against acute arthritis induced by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies against type II collagen. Specifically, there is no accumulation of neutrophils in the joints of DPPI–/– mice. This protective effect correlates with the inactivation of neutrophil-derived serine proteases, since NE–/– × CG–/– mice are equally resistant to arthritis induction by anti-collagen antibodies. In addition, protease-deficient mice have decreased response to zymosan- and immune complex–mediated inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch. This defect is accompanied by a decrease in local production of TNF-α and IL-1β. These results implicate DPPI and polymorphonuclear neutrophil–derived serine proteases in the regulation of cytokine production at sites of inflammation.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a neutrophilic airway inflammation that can be demonstrated by examination of induced sputum. Theophylline has antiinflammatory effects in asthma, and in the present study we investigated whether a similar effect occurs in COPD patients treated with low doses of theophylline. Twenty-five patients with COPD were treated with theophylline (plasma level of 9–11 mg/L) for 4 weeks in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study. Theophylline was well tolerated. Induced sputum inflammatory cells, neutrophils, interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, and lactoferrin were all significantly reduced by about 22% by theophylline. Neutrophils from subjects treated with theophylline showed reduced chemotaxis to N-formyl-met-leu-phe (∼ 28%) and interleukin-8 (∼ 60%). Neutrophils from a healthy donor showed reduced chemotaxis (∼ 30%) to induced sputum samples obtained during theophylline treatment. These results suggest that theophylline has antiinflammatory properties that may be useful in the long-term treatment of COPD.