The recruitment and trafficking of leukocytes are essential aspects of the inflammatory process. Although chemokines are thought to be the main regulators of cell trafficking, extracellular cyclophilins have been shown recently to have potent chemoattracting properties for human leukocytes. Cyclophilins are secreted by a variety of cell types and are detected at high levels in tissues with ongoing inflammation. CD147 has been identified as the main signaling receptor for cyclophilin A (CypA) on human leukocytes. It is interesting that the expression of CD147 is elevated on leukocytes from inflamed tissue, suggesting a correlation among the presence of extracellular cyclophilins, CD147 expression, and inflammatory responses. Thus, cyclophilin-CD147 interactions may contribute directly to the recruitment of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. In the current studies, we show that activated human T lymphocytes express elevated levels of CD147, compared with resting T cells and that these activated T cells migrate more readily to CypA than resting cells. Furthermore, we show that unlike resting CD4+ T cells, the cyclophilin-mediated migration of activated T cells does not require interaction with heparan sulfate receptors but instead, is dependent on CD147 interaction alone. Such findings suggest that cyclophilin-CD147 interactions will be most potent when leukocytes are in an activated state, for example, during inflammatory responses. Thus, targeting cyclophilin-CD147 interactions may provide a novel approach for alleviating tissue inflammation.
Despite having a high degree of sequence similarity, the Rho guanosine triphosphatases Rac1 and Rac2 regulate distinct functions in neutrophils. Here we demonstrate that the unique Rac2 localization and functions in neutrophils are regulated by two separate C-terminal motifs, the hypervariable domain and aspartic acid 150, one of which has not previously been linked to the function of Rho GTPases. In addition, we show an unexpected dependence of Rac1 localization on Rac2 activity in these same cells, demonstrating a degree of crosstalk between two closely related Rho GTPases. Thus, we have defined specific sequences in Rac that specify subcellular localization and determine the specificity of Rac2 in neutrophil chemotaxis and superoxide generation.
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Osteopontin is an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)–containing acidic glycoprotein postulated to mediate cellular adhesion and migration in a growing number of normal and pathological conditions through interaction with integrin molecules. In this report, we have investigated the potential contributions of osteopontin and one of its receptors, the αvβ3 integrin, to endothelial regenerative processes by using both in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo, uninjured rat arterial endothelium had undetectable levels of osteopontin and β3-integrin mRNA by in situ hybridization. After balloon catheter denudation, osteopontin mRNA levels correlated temporally and spatially with active endothelial proliferation and migration, with the highest levels observed at the wound edge between 8 hours and 2 weeks after injury, declining to uninjured levels at 6 weeks, when regeneration was complete. Osteopontin protein levels, as determined by immunocytochemistry, paralleled the time course of mRNA expression. Likewise, β3-integrin mRNA and protein levels were substantially elevated in regenerating endothelial cells but were not detectable in uninjured or healed endothelium. In vitro, rat smooth muscle cell–derived and bacterial expressed mouse recombinant osteopontins both stimulated the adhesion and directed migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells through interactions with the αvβ3 receptor. Structural mutants of osteopontin confirmed the importance of the RGD domain for both adhesion and migration of endothelial cells through αvβ3. These data suggest important roles for osteopontin and β3 integrin in regenerating endothelium.
A new rapid staining and measuring method has been developed for the quantification of migrated cells in a microchemotaxis chamber. The migrated cells were, after staining, evaluated by a transmission densitometer. The method introduced here is more accurate and faster than those described previously. In addition the technique can be used to determine the adherent capacity of cells.
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The present study investigated the effect of adrenomedullin, a novel vasorelaxant peptide, on the migration of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by using the Boyden-chamber method. Fetal calf serum (FCS) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)–BB strongly stimulated SMC migration. Adrenomedullin clearly inhibited SMC migration stimulated with 5% and 10% FCS in a concentration-dependent manner. The migration induced by 10 and 25 ng/mL PDGF-BB was also inhibited by adrenomedullin in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition by adrenomedullin of FCS- and PDGF-induced SMC migration was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of cAMP. In fact, the percent increase in cAMP level was strongly correlated with the percent decrease in migration activity of SMCs after treatment with adrenomedullin. 8-Bromo cAMP, a cAMP analogue, reproduced the inhibition by adrenomedullin of FCS- and PDGF-induced SMC migration. An activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, also reduced FCS- and PDGF-induced SMC migration. These data indicate that adrenomedullin inhibits the migration of SMCs stimulated with FCS and PDGF, probably through a cAMP-dependent process. On the basis of these results and the finding that adrenomedullin is synthesized in and secreted from vascular endothelial cells, adrenomedullin may play a role as a local antimigration factor in some pathophysiological states.
Background—Oxidized LDL has been found within the subendothelial space, and it exhibits numerous atherogenic properties, including induction of inflammatory genes. We examined the possibility that variations in endothelial response to minimally modified LDL (MM-LDL) constitute one of the genetic components in atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results—By a novel explant technique, endothelial cells (ECs) were isolated from the aorta of inbred mouse strains with different susceptibilities to diet-induced atherosclerosis. Responses to MM-LDL were evaluated by examining the expression of inflammatory genes involved in atherosclerosis, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage-colony–stimulating factor (M-CSF), an oxidative stress gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and other, noninflammatory, genes. ECs from the susceptible mouse strain C57BL/6J exhibited dramatic induction of MCP-1, M-CSF, and HO-1, whereas ECs from the resistant strain C3H/HeJ showed little or no induction. In contrast, ECs from the 2 strains responded similarly to lipopolysaccharide.
Conclusions—These data provide strong evidence that genetic factors in atherosclerosis act at the level of the vessel wall.
Background—To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose–induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or α-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).
Methods and Results—Chronic high-glucose-medium (22.2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB–mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and α-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose–induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and α-tocopherol suppressed high glucose–induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, α-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose–induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, α-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C.
Conclusions—These findings suggest that probucol and α-tocopherol may suppress high glucose–induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress.
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 α (SDF-1α), the ligand for G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, is a chemotactic factor for T lymphocytes. LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) phosphorylates cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing and -severing protein, at Ser-3 and regulates actin reorganization. We investigated the role of cofilin phosphorylation by LIMK1 in SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of T lymphocytes. SDF-1α significantly induced the activation of LIMK1 in Jurkat human leukemic T cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. SDF-1α also induced cofilin phosphorylation, actin reorganization, and activation of small GTPases, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, in Jurkat cells. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin inhibited SDF-1α-induced LIMK1 activation, thus indicating that Gi protein is involved in LIMK1 activation. Expression of dominant negative Rac (DN-Rac), but not DN-Rho or DN-Cdc42, blocked SDF-1α-induced activation of LIMK1, which means that SDF-1α-induced LIMK1 activation is mediated by Rac but not by Rho or Cdc42. We used a cell-permeable peptide (S3 peptide) that contains the phosphorylation site (Ser-3) of cofilin to inhibit the cellular function of LIMK1. S3 peptide inhibited the kinase activity of LIMK1 in vitro. Treatment of Jurkat cells with S3 peptide inhibited the SDF-1α-induced cofilin phosphorylation, actin reorganization, and chemotactic response of Jurkat cells. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of cofilin by LIMK1 plays a critical role in the SDF-1α-induced chemotactic response of T lymphocytes.
Fluorescent probes have been utilized to label leukocytes for both in vivo and in vitro studies of cell migration; however, the effects of such probes on migration have not been determined. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two commonly used fluorescent probes on leukocyte chemotaxis. J774 macrophages were labeled with either calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) or 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetomethyl ester (BCECF-AM), then assayed for their ability to migrate to zymosan-activated serum (ZAS). Cell migration was quantified by two methods: visual counting of cells and measuring cell fluorescence. Using the cell counts, comparison of unlabeled and fluorescently labeled macrophages demonstrated that BCECF-AM decreased the number of cells responding to ZAS, while calcein-AM had essentially no effect. Neither probe significantly affected the number of cells migrating to medium alone. The inhibitory effects of BCECF-AM on cell migration increased with probe concentration (0.1-1.0 microM) and cell fluorescence. Cell viability was unaffected by either probe. In contrast to the results obtained by visual counting, measuring fluorescence of migrated cells did not reveal a significant difference between the chemotactic response of macrophages labeled with BCECF-AM and those labeled with calcein-AM. These experiments indicated that fluorescent probes can affect the chemotactic response and that inhibitory activity of these probes may not be detected when chemotaxis is quantified solely by automated methods.
pdf at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cyto.990190412/pdf
An in vitro, fluorimetric method for cellular chemotaxis and invasion has been developed using a commercially available, disposable, 96-well chamber. This 4–18 hour microtiter chamber assay has a number of important advantages over existing methods. It does not require prior labeling of cells or radioactivity, and is rapid, automatable and quantitative. Cells are quantitated by a novel actin-based fluorescence tag as reported previously (Methods in Cell Science 17: 263–270, 1995). Following quantitation, cells are easily detectable by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, this assay conserves reagents due to its low volumes in the upper and lower chambers. The assay has been optimized using cultured human lung cancer cells to identify inhibitors or activators of directed cell migration. The effects of antibodies to V3, V5, and CD44 on the chemotaxis and invasion of A549 cultured lung tumor cells are reported.
pdf available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/wg1v6175p40wm3x0/