Osteoarthritis is characterized by the progressive destruction of cartilage in the articular joints. Novel therapies that promote resurfacing of exposed bone in focal areas are of
interest in osteoarthritis because they may delay the progression of this disabling disease in patients who develop focal lesions. Recently, the addition of 80% deacetylated chitosan to cartilage microfractures was shown to promote the regeneration of hyaline cartilage. The molecular mechanisms by which chitosan promotes cartilage regeneration remain unknown. Because neutrophils are transiently recruited to the microfracture site, the effect of 80% deacetylated chitosan on the function of neutrophils was investigated. Most studies on neutrophils use preparations of chitosan with an uncertain degree of deacetylation. For therapeutic purposes, it is of interest to determine whether the degree of deacetylation influences the response of neutrophils to chitosan. The effect of 95% deacetylated chitosan on the function of neutrophils was therefore also investigated and compared with that of 80%
We hypothesized that the priming and activation of maternal leukocytes in peripheral blood is a key component of parturition, and that inappropriate preterm priming of leukocytes might initiate preterm labour and delivery. The purpose of this study was to characterize peripheral blood leukocyte activation during human term and preterm labour. We obtained blood samples from pregnant women at term and preterm, both in labour and not in labour. Leukocytes were characterized according to cell subtype and cell surface marker expression. Additionally, we quantified leukocyte cytokine mRNA production, migratory ability and reactive oxygen species production of neutrophils and macrophages. We found that both term and preterm labour were associated with an increase in monocyte and neutrophil proportion or number—neutrophil migratory ability and cell surface marker expression indicating activation. Messenger RNA expression of IL-1β and IL-8, MCP-1 and TLR-2 was also increased. We conclude that leukocytes in peripheral blood are primed in preparation for activation during term and preterm labour, and that this may contribute to the pathophysiological events of parturition. These data may lead to novel therapies and diagnostic tools for the prevention and/or diagnosis of preterm birth.
Previous studies showed that loss of the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) induces Rab4a-dependent recycling of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β-receptor in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Here we identify protein kinase C (PKC) α as the critical signaling component that regulates the sorting of the PDGF β-receptor at the early endosomes. Down-regulation of PKC abrogated receptor recycling by preventing the sorting of the activated receptor into EGFP-Rab4a positive domains on the early endosomes. This effect was mimicked by inhibition of PKCα, using myristoylated inhibitory peptides or by knockdown of PKCα with shRNAi. In wt MEFs, short-term preactivation of PKC by PMA caused a ligand-induced PDGF β-receptor recycling that was dependent on Rab4a function. Together, these observations demonstrate that PKC activity is necessary for recycling of ligand-stimulated PDGF β-receptor to occur. The sorting also required Rab4a function as it was prevented by expression of EGFP-Rab4aS22N. Preventing receptor sorting into recycling endosomes increased the rate of receptor degradation, indicating that the sorting of activated receptors at early endosomes directly regulates the duration of receptor signaling. Activation of PKC through the LPA receptor also induced PDGF β-receptor recycling and potentiated the chemotactic response to PDGF-BB. Taken together, our present findings indicate that sorting of PDGF β-receptors on early endosomes is regulated by sequential activation of PKCα and Rab4a and that this sorting step could constitute a point of cross-talk with other receptors.