We determined that lisofylline, a potent inhibitor of oleate- and linoleate-containing phosphatidic acid formation (half-maximal inhibitory concentration = 40 nM), prevented oxidant-mediated capillary leak in isolated rat lungs given interleukin-8 (IL-8) intratracheally and perfused with human neutrophils. Lung leak was prevented by lung, but not neutrophil, lisofylline pretreatment. Furthermore, although lisofylline inhibited IL-8-stimulated neutrophil production of phosphatidic acid in vitro, it did not prevent IL-8-stimulated neutrophil adherence, chemotaxis, or intracellular calcium mobilization or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated oxidant production in vitro. Lisofylline also prevented acute capillary leak in isolated rat lungs perfused only with the oxidant generator purine-xanthine oxidase but did not scavenge or H2O2 in vitro. Finally, lisofylline-mediated protection against lung leak in both models was associated with alterations in lung membrane free fatty acid acyl composition (as reflected by the decreased ratio [linoleate + oleate]/ [palmitate]). We conclude that lisofylline prevented both neutrophil-dependent and neutrophil-independent oxidant-induced capillary leak in isolated rat lungs and that protection appears to be mediated by blocking intrinsic lung linoleoyl phosphatidic acid metabolism. We speculate that lisofylline, in addition to our previously reported effects on cytokine signaling by intrapulmonary mononuclear cells, alters intrinsic pulmonary capillary membrane composition and renders this barrier less vulnerable to oxidative damage.
Infection with tissue-migrating helminths is frequently associated with intense granulocyte infiltrations. Several host-derived factors are known to mediate granulocyte recruitment to the tissues, but less attention has been paid to how parasite-derived products trigger this process. Parasite-derived chemotactic factors which selectively recruit granulocytes have been described, but nothing is known about which cellular receptors respond to these agents. The effect of products from the nematodes Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis, andAnisakis simplex on human neutrophils were studied. We monitored four parameters of activation: chemotaxis, cell polarization, intracellular Ca2+ transients, and priming of superoxide anion production. Body fluids of A. suum (ABF) and T. canis (TcBF) induced strong directional migration, shape change, and intracellular Ca2+ transients. ABF also primed neutrophils for production of superoxide anions. Calcium mobilization in response to A. suum-derived products was completely abrogated by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating a classical G protein-coupled receptor mechanism in the response to ABF. Moreover, pretreatment with interleukin-8 (IL-8) completely abrogated the response to ABF, demonstrating desensitization of a common pathway. However, ABF was unable to fully desensitize the response to IL-8, and binding to CXCR1 or CXCR2 was excluded in experiments using RBL-2H3 cells transfected with the two human IL-8 receptors. Our results provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between a parasite-derived chemotactic factor and the host’s chemotactic network, via a novel G protein-coupled receptor which interacts with the IL-8 receptor pathway.
Previous studies showed that loss of the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) induces Rab4a-dependent recycling of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β-receptor in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Here we identify protein kinase C (PKC) α as the critical signaling component that regulates the sorting of the PDGF β-receptor at the early endosomes. Down-regulation of PKC abrogated receptor recycling by preventing the sorting of the activated receptor into EGFP-Rab4a positive domains on the early endosomes. This effect was mimicked by inhibition of PKCα, using myristoylated inhibitory peptides or by knockdown of PKCα with shRNAi. In wt MEFs, short-term preactivation of PKC by PMA caused a ligand-induced PDGF β-receptor recycling that was dependent on Rab4a function. Together, these observations demonstrate that PKC activity is necessary for recycling of ligand-stimulated PDGF β-receptor to occur. The sorting also required Rab4a function as it was prevented by expression of EGFP-Rab4aS22N. Preventing receptor sorting into recycling endosomes increased the rate of receptor degradation, indicating that the sorting of activated receptors at early endosomes directly regulates the duration of receptor signaling. Activation of PKC through the LPA receptor also induced PDGF β-receptor recycling and potentiated the chemotactic response to PDGF-BB. Taken together, our present findings indicate that sorting of PDGF β-receptors on early endosomes is regulated by sequential activation of PKCα and Rab4a and that this sorting step could constitute a point of cross-talk with other receptors.